THE IMPACT OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. 14
The Google Glass
Final Case in Marketing
This case was written by Dorsan Paul Masure under the direction of Prof. Alba Mendoza Camps, EU Business School (Barcelona).
DATE November 30, 2021
Contents Case Introduction 3 Problem opportunities/ challenge identification/dilemma. 5 Main facts and events of the core study. 6 Research and analysis of the situation. 8 Formulation of solutions/answers. 9 Discussion and selection of solutions/answers. 11 References. 13
Section 1: Impact of artificial intelligence.
Artificial intelligence is recognized as an academic discipline in the field of science that entails providing machines or any living intelligence with both operational and social intelligence. Operational in terms of learning, reasoning, planning, and logic while social about creativity and emotional knowledge. It is majorly defined as the study of human intelligence and actions replicated artificially such that the resultant bears to its design a reasonable level of rationality that may even surpass humans in specific tasks (Russel & Norvig, 2021, p.23). Machine learning has greatly impacted the current world not only technologically but ethically, socio-economically, and even legally.
The positive impacts of artificial intelligence are: aids in faster and efficient decision-making processes due to the installed algorithm useful to store data, readily available throughout that comes in handy especially in help centers and educational institutions, AI is also useful in indulging in risky tasks on behalf of humans, minimizes errors by humans especially in the forecasting of weather, assist in repetitive tasks through cognitive automation especially in banks, offer great digital assistance through inventions like chatbots used by business mostly to interact with customers, useful in making new inventions like predictive mechanisms to detect ailment in humans like predicting of breast cancer in women, and overall enhancement of productivity and efficiency.
Despite the creation of a futuristic impact, it has several key issues attributed to it. Problems related to the privacy and safety of data, one must have a high affinity for technical knowledge on AI advancements, costly to implement this technology as well as employ the specialized workforce, lack of speed in terms of computational infrastructure solutions, ethical challenges given algorithms keyed in the computers that are rather unfair, greater responsibility especially in taking care of hardware malfunction, and loss of jobs as employers are replacing human labor with automated and computerized labor. Businesses are affected by cyber security issues that result in cyber-terrorism. Artificial intelligence has also proved to be problematic in healthcare organizations majorly on hypothesis generation, testing, and action using a deep learning algorithm that is very expensive to procure and maintain.
The future of work for humans is definitely at stake. Integration of robotics and artificial intelligence in businesses has influenced significant technological changes in the economy thus altering market responses and by extension political responses. It is important to note that technological advancements affect employment in two main ways: retrenchment of the workforce and increased demand for specialized labor to handle the non-routine cognitive skilled tasks which are inimitable by robots. However, this creates a rise in demand for highly skilled workers which eventually creates a niche in the employment sector.
Job polarization is a major outcome of the adoption of artificial intelligence by organizations. This is where employees with middle-skill jobs such as machine operators as well as office clerks and secretaries get replaced by robots that can tackle manual routines and cognitive skilled jobs previously done by the human workforce (Neufeind, O’Reilly, Ranft, et al.,2018, p.970). It is safe to therefore say that introduction of technology-targeted jobs done by average-skilled workers hence a notable change. This, therefore, means an anticipated change in the labor market that will be transformative causing a shift even in employment opportunities in the future.
No new invention lacks its pros and cons and artificial intelligence is no different. For humans to be able to keep up with this technological aspect then concerns should be addressed concerning the future of the human race with the encroachment of robotics This paper will discuss mitigation procedures to the aforementioned drawbacks providing clear, well-defined solutions necessary for adoption in the future.
Problems resulting from artificial intelligence can be solved in several ways. Awareness ought to be created concerning the technical know-how of using and managing new technologies. This will help bolster employment rates as people can employ themselves and earn a living from the skills acquired in the awareness programs. With this, people can eliminate thinking inside the box and begin creative and innovative ways to incorporate artificial intelligence in their businesses and daily lives. Employers need to offer specialized training as well as on job training to improve and instill a culture of tech-based solutions. This bridges the gap in technical skills thus creating a readily available workforce in the economy.
Legally, policies should be established that advocate for the development and growth of artificial intelligence focusing on the general welfare of humans. Legal policies that help in the detection of fraudulent activities and transactions as well as any anomalies in the country’s database. Socio-economic policies that support financial analysis procedures in the prediction of prices, advocating for AI usage in healthcare facilities especially drug invention and vaccines, supporting wildlife using wildlife corridors after careful study of animal behavior, advocating for the usage of electric and specialized cars that make self-driving a reality, and cyber security awareness policies that help corporates counter cyber-terrorist attacks. This will mitigate the problem of criminal liability.
Governments should divert their priorities of political and economic systems as well as education systems to individuals and boost and empower them on machine learning. Education policies that emphasize transformative learning processes must be advocated to help humans keep up and stay ahead of the robotics era. Governments should also aim at boosting and improving alliances between them, the media, and the public sensitizing on the foreseeable negative impact of artificial intelligence and merge as a team to develop better measures of incorporating a robotics culture where humans have control over artificial intelligence and not the other way round (Anderson, Rainie & Luchsinger, 2018, p.12). Through public forums, the government can get suggestions and ideas from the public concerning their attitude and acceptance of artificial intelligence and handle problems associated with it simple yet effective.
As discussed earlier, the loss of jobs is unavoidable as the incorporation of technology is on the rise. This results in a decline in wages thus a significant change in trading patterns thus impacting negatively on the economy either countrywide or worldwide. Today the service industry has proved to be the largest employer as organizations are focusing on better service delivery strategies thus artificial intelligence is highly used and utilized to the maximum. Restaurants and hotels are at the forefront where some have introduced virtual robots/bots that offer customers the pleasure of serving themselves the food they want this eliminates the managerial position as the AI can integrate the work done mechanically. Digital assistance devices like chatbots are also helpful in assisting during sopping especially for online shoppers and buyers (Brandtzaeg & Folstad, 2017, p.377). This helps buyers in their decision-making process as they offer additional information to the customer to identify their tastes and preference. Thus, customer satisfaction is achieved.
Healthcare organizations experience challenges on misinformed diagnosis, insufficient pieces of equipment for surgery, need for a third-party opinion which wastes time and, unrecorded patient information. Artificial intelligence adoption assists in definitive and accurate tests and diagnoses that help in ailment prediction as well as treatment. This saves on time and money as no second opinions are needed. Scientists in hospitals can invent new drugs and medicines with the help of AI tools that help relate historical data with the current one and can identify anomalies and advancement opportunities (Jiang, Zhi et.al., 2017). Digital assistance tools used in hospitals help consolidate patient information and data reducing office bulk and organized retrieval strategies thus saving time.
Education levels vary from person to person and so does comprehension capability. To avoid education gaps transformative learning process ought to be incorporated into the education system. Artificial intelligence shifts learning to a personalized level. Chatbots are useful in teaching especially learning a language for a beginner (Brandtzaeg & Folstad, 2017, p.377). Through chatbots, students answer questions in turn the teachers can identify struggling students and assist them in a personalized manner. Extensive reading material is made available creating a better environment for students to learn even without a teacher. Interactions with these virtual assistance tools make learning enjoyable and even entertaining.
Government systems face challenges obscuring their service delivery objectives to their citizens. Delayed payment of civil servants, unequal distribution of funds across regions countrywide, unaccounted for budgets for national projects, and unorganized database. The adoption of artificial intelligence tools into the government system ought to automize service delivery through an e-government platform. Through electronic government services information on its citizens is consolidated and updated regularly. With machine learning the government can identify and detect fraudulent activities and accounts in real-time as well as cyber-related crimes. With this, governments can create awareness on how businesses should create lasting firewalls necessary to fight cyber-terrorist attacks.
Financial institutions face drawbacks concerning cyber-attacks and fraudulent transactions especially large quantities of money. Challenges such as delayed alert signals especially when a crime is taking place, lack of enough insight on analysis of necessary data, high affinity for false positives, and unclear profiles that end up being anonymous. Machine learning is ideal for detecting images of profiles suspected to be fraudulent and performing behavioral analysis on such individuals thus keeping track of their habits and bank accounts (Choi & Lee, 2018). Benefits attributed to machine learning in fraud detection are that it is fast thus saving time, prediction is accurate and highly scalable.
Business domain benefits also from artificial intelligence. Marketing on social media platforms has proved to be problematic especially for a business owner that is not well acquainted with the platform. Theft and fire challenges for a physical store that costs business owners a lot of money to recover. Struggles on sales and making profits is however the major challenge by businesses. Artificial intelligence integration into a business is lucrative. On marketing on social media, predictions are made on the perfect time to post, what product is most demanded and recommended by customers, prediction of prices about the market, and trendy products and services. The use of chatbots to interact with customers and clients is beneficial to the business due to timely responses as they are operating throughout the day and night. With accurate predictions, better and informed decisions are made thus reflecting positively on the business sales.
A crucial issue emanating from artificial intelligence adoption is the automation of labor that greatly affects the feasibility of other alternatives. From job automation comes risks related to displacement leading to job insecurity, health-related risks especially the retrenched ones, it brings a level of inequality due to a big wage gap, and criminal liability legally. A few scholars have discussed the progress made to mitigate these problems and even offered possible solutions and suggestions on incorporating machine learning in respect to job automation.
There were risks associated with the automation of jobs. To begin with, there was Frey and Osborne (FO) (2013,2017) mentioned that forty-seven percent of the United States population were at risk of having their occupations automated. They projected this for the next twenty to thirty years to come. The claim was however generalized on all occupations which were in contrast to other scholars who viewed it based on task intensity.it is for this reason that the Frey and Osborne methodology cannot be relied on while measuring the changes involved in job automation in the future. This methodology fails to suffice predictions on forecasting employment levels.
Countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), were analyzed by researchers on their risk to automation. According to Arntz, Gregory & Zierahn, (2016, p.) concluded that nine percent of the occupations are automated. This was the task-based approach at individual levels of workers. For example, automated jobs in Korea are about six percent while Austria is twelve percent. Owing to differences in countries other factors may vary such as differences in the education level of the workforce, workplace organization, and even investment decisions in respect to automation. Thus, they criticized Frey and Osborne’s approach be overestimating the risks associated with automation based on occupation and not the task.
The scholars mentioned above studied the impact of artificial intelligence emphasizing the displacement effect. However, other scholars did view AI’s impact as addressing the productivity effect. This is where new machines have the potential to increase the employment rate. (Besson, 2017) discovered that computer technology impacts positively on the growth of jobs especially in the manufacturing sector. This examines the effect of technology on employment in the affected industry only.
It is important to note that logically the sustainability of a sector as a whole result from the wholesome rise and fall of other sectors. Research by (Acemoglu and Restrepo, 2016, p.197) expound on their model stating that the impact of technology on the labor market is not only influenced by industries operating in the same sector but also on industries in other sectors of the economy. This might require an equilibrium approach since not all technologically feasible tasks correspond to automated jobs and even wages.
Robot encroachment is seemingly inevitable as time goes by. Thus, with increased competition between the workforce and robots, there is a gradual penetration of robots into the local market as well as a change in the national use of robots. As a result, the displacement effects prove to have dominion over the productivity effect. The equilibrium approach fails to satisfy some short-run effects. The discussed approaches fail to agree upon the potential impact of technology on the automation of jobs. With the lack of precision in determining the exact impact of artificial intelligence, it is intricate to formulate policies for a response.
New technologies create room for new opportunities for the organization and even the sector as a whole. Its major impact if first felt on the managerial positions who have to make big decisions on behalf of the company. Managers can leverage artificial intelligence-enabled software in making decisions carefully considering the consequences of either using the AI or being used by echoing the software’s results (Leyer & Schneider,2021). One internal strength of artificial intelligence is that it requires a touch of humanity thus eliminating control by the technology. This creates an external opportunity where there is less strain on the workforce as they can now automate trifling tasks.
Increased workplace productivity is influenced and enabled by artificial intelligence and robotics. Higher productivity translates to better economic conditions in the country. Better productivity is a direct result of a specialized and skilled workforce. It is important to note that a company employing a skilled workforce has adopted a company culture of prioritizing customers since not all services require a robot (Ivanov, Webster, et al., 2017, p.101431). By striking the right balance between technology adoption by the service providers and the customers being served.
There are financial benefits associated with new technology adoption. Companies that apply artificial intelligence have saved greatly on their costs of labor. Service robots such as chatbots and self-service kiosks operate throughout the day compared to the forty hours of work by the human workforce. In addition, robots can serve as many customers as possible at the same time thus being able to handle as many orders as possible. This positively impacts the sales of the organization.
Artificial intelligence supports further investments by organizations as internal strength. This creates an opportunity for the innovation of smart cars that can drive themselves by the touch of a button. This helps great people with disabilities as they can maneuver easily and safely. According to the McKinsey Global Institute (2016) companies can also invest in underutilized talents which is a largely untapped labor market. This is where the organization can acquire a workforce that is effective and updated with the necessary skills to handle the everchanging technological advancements.
The use of advanced industrial robotics (AIR) helps machines interact with their environment through programmable software. This is made possible using sensors that help to identify what is around them-the machines. In addition, these sensors are integrated and attached to various objects in the production process thus feeding live data to the central computer system. These combined sensors are known as the industrial internet of things (IIOT). These are just but a few technological advancements that offer solutions to problems triggered by artificial intelligence adoption.
Core digital technologies need to be adopted by organizations especially in the manufacturing industry such as sensors, the internet, microprocessors, digital algorithms, and rendering devices. Advancements such as electric cars and industrial biotech are integrated with the core technologies and are useful in the manufacturing industry. Industrial biotech is the usage of biological processes of living organisms for industrial purposes such as metabolic and genomics. While electric vehicles are majorly propelled by electricity instead of fuel.
Recommendations have been made concerning the adoption of artificial intelligence in our daily lives. Establishment of a regulatory framework for the development and evaluation of Artificial intelligence with the diagnostic algorithm with the ever-emerging conflict of interest (Larson, Rubin, et., al 2021, p.413). Measures such as dividing the evaluation process into clear steps, advocating for assessment by a third party, defining performance elements that are beyond the accurate, separating the algorithm from the diagnostic task, and lastly putting together these factors in the process of the manufacture’s development.
In healthcare organizations, the practice of radiology is greatly influenced by artificial intelligence. Thus, an urgent need for medical practitioners to be well acquainted with the new technological advancements. (Recht, Dewey, Dreyer, et., al 2020, p.3576) emphasizes that radiologists ought to gain a greater comprehension of basic principles, limits, and even potential for effective data sharing and training and testing of artificial intelligence algorithms necessary for the development
The usage of artificial intelligence to altercate human intelligence is useful especially in drug discovery by specialists. A simple process is followed to come up with logical theories on potential drugs useful to cure humans (Rohall, Gable, et al., 2020, p.8824). It begins with the computer being triggered. With the help of the input data, automated predictions are made by the computer, then an automated analysis is done and lastly, automated recommendations are made where now the specialist acts by reviewing and affirming the recommendations as correct and valid.
The government of a country greatly advocates for artificial intelligence adoption through the formulation of Artificial intelligent ethics principles and recommendations that are used in the defense department for implementation of artificial intelligence of non-combat and combat purposes. This is mainly useful in stimulating the safety of artificial intelligence and its security. This report is essential in expounding the historical policy and theoretical concepts for the highlighted recommendations (Board, 2019). Governments have unveiled the potential transformation in artificial intelligence and heavily invested in the modernization of forces while engaging around the globe in proactive tasks.
Countries such as Russia and China and investing billions of dollars in artificial intelligence applications and testing their efficacy in real-life combat situations. For instance, China has forcefully declared and committed to being a global leader in artificial intelligence by 2030 (Board, 2019). The military ethics document cements the ethics upheld by the soldiers to ensure a lawful approach in ensuring the safety of the country and its citizens. Matters concerning the arena on national security careful analysis of unanticipated behavior is paramount to deduce the ideal technology to be used.
Artificial intelligence is prone to unintended consequences and its relevance is felt across all fields be it engineering, medicine, or even business. This is so because any kind of technology needs a touch of humanity thus making artificial intelligence an extension of the human workforce rather than a replacement. Numerous external opportunities come up as a result of new technology adoption by organizations. With increased internet usage then a new market is tapped into thus creating new job opportunities for unemployed individuals.
However, there are some cons to artificial intelligence usage in that increased competition results from increased adoption of technology. Changes in government policies may negatively affect businesses and organizations especially on laws concerning taxation and altercations in the exchange rates of the currency in the foreign market. This leads to a change in prices that could either lead to inflation or depression in the economy. Artificial intelligence has its pros and cons as discussed above. It is paramount for individuals to educate themselves on new technologies and get to brainstorm effective ways to use the new technology to make a living for themselves. Information technology is a field that should be considered vital especially in school and academic settings to ensure that awareness is created on its value.
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